UNDERSTANDING A COMMUNITY RESPONSE

TO

po

IN THE

DISTRICT OF PARRY SOUND

 

 

PREPARED BY:  Christine Duncan

Human Trafficking Project Coordinator

East & West Parry Sound Victim Services

 

April 2014

 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

Acronyms/Terms. 3

Executive Summary. 4

Methodology. 5

Limitations. 5

Part 1:  Survey Results. 6

Knowledge and Awareness of Human Trafficking in the DPS. 6

Part 2:  Symposium Case Studies. 8

Towards a Localized Response to Human Trafficking in the DPS. 8

Part 3:  Project Recommendations. 10

Towards a Localized Response to Human Trafficking in the DPS. 10

Conclusion .12

Appendix A: Preliminary Report .13

Appendix B: Symposium Case Studies .20

Appendix C: Resources for Human Trafficking Victims .22

 

Funding for this project was provided by

nvcAW

 

Acronyms/Terms

 

Bottom Bitch                      

  One girl, among several controlled by a single pimp, appointed by him to supervise the others, report rule violations, and sometimes even help inflict punishment on them.

 

DPS                                         District of Parry Sound

 

HRSDC                                    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada

 

MPSCMHS                             Muskoka-Parry Sound Community Mental Health Service

 

OPP                                        Ontario Provincial Police

 

PSDSSAB                             Parry Sound District Social Services Administration Board

 

Stable                                 A group of sex trafficking victims under the control of a pimp

 

VQRP                                      Victim Quick Response Program

 

VWAP                                    Victim Witness Assistance Program

 

WPSHC                                   West Parry Sound Health Centre

 

 

Executive Summary

 

While both domestic and international trafficking is known to occur within and across Ontario’s borders it is difficult to acquire official estimates due to the hidden nature of the crime.  The purpose of the human trafficking project was to attempt to ascertain the nature and scope of human trafficking in the District of Parry Sound in order to develop a coordinated localized response that best meets the needs of human trafficking victims in our area.

With this in mind, this project focused on a cross-section of law enforcement, local government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and groups that may investigate, prosecute or offer support and/or services to victims of human trafficking or to populations that are assumed to be vulnerable to human trafficking.

The project consisted of an initial survey, a preliminary report and a one-day symposium.  The findings of the preliminary report (Appendix A) combined with the resultant discussions of participants at a one-day symposium provided insight into how we can begin to develop an effective coordinated and localized response to human trafficking in the District of Parry Sound.

The main findings of the report indicate that organizations and agencies in the District of Parry Sound would need to overcome several challenges in order to appropriately respond to victims of human trafficking.  In particular, the following issues were identified:

  • The need to raise awareness about human trafficking and to provide education to both the general public and service providers
  • The need to address possible service gaps that are specific to the rural and expansive nature of the District of Parry Sound in order to provide a coordinated localized response to each form of human trafficking.

These challenges along with possible solutions will be addressed in more detail throughout this report.

 

Methodology

 

The complexity and diversity of the perceptions of what constitutes “human trafficking” necessitated the inclusion of a broad range of perspectives.  As a result, a mixed-method approach was used and representatives from numerous government agencies, NGOs, and law enforcement were asked to complete the questionnaire and attend the symposium.

The questions in the survey were designed to determine the perceived strengths and limitations of the District of Parry Sound relative to its ability to effectively address and support the needs of human trafficking victims.   The questions gathered information about the respondents’ knowledge and awareness of human trafficking, their experience with different types of human trafficking, and their opinions about the existing ability for the community to respond (i.e., services/resources) to human trafficking and how these could be improved upon.

In total, 17 survey responses were received, representing a response rate of 40.5%.  The respondents included a variety of individuals representing frontline service providers, law enforcement, and faith based organizations.  The survey was anonymous so the exact number of respondents from each sector could not be determined.

Survey findings were used to generate a preliminary report.  The preliminary report was used to inform participants about the perceived nature and scope of human trafficking in the District of Parry Sound.  Survey participants were invited to attend a one-day symposium.  Symposium participants learned about various forms of trafficking and possible indicators of human trafficking victims.  This knowledge combined with both the findings of the preliminary report and a list of possible area resources was then used to generate possible coordinated localized responses to case studies (Appendix B) involving victims of sex trafficking, domestic servitude, forced labour and forced marriage.

Limitations

The response turnaround time was very short and this may have resulted in a lower response rate to the survey.  One respondent stated that the questions were confusing.  Some possible stakeholders may have been overlooked.

Not all agencies were able to attend the one-day symposium and therefore, the views of some key stakeholders did not inform the discussions around generating an effective coordinated localized response to human trafficking.

 

Part 1:  Survey Results

Knowledge and Awareness of Human Trafficking in the DPS

1.1 Human Trafficking Victims and Perpetrators

65% of respondents believed that they had encountered a victim of human trafficking (i.e., an individual exploited for sex, labour, servitude, or forced marriage) in the past 2 years.  29% believed they had encountered at least one human trafficking victim.  24% stated that they had encountered 2 or 3 victims. 12% of respondents stated that they had dealt with 5 or more suspected victims of human trafficking.  The majority of respondents stated that they had never encountered a perpetrator of human trafficking (71%).  24 % stated that they only had contact with one or two suspected perpetrators.  1 % of respondents believed they had encountered at least 3 perpetrators.  No respondents reported encountering 4 or more perpetrators in the last 2 years.

1.2 Most Prevalent Forms of Human Trafficking in the DPS

56% of respondents believed that sex trafficking is the most prevalent form of human trafficking in our area.  Respondents identified several factors that could account for this:

  • High school students doing favours for money/drugs/items
  • Parents selling kids for sexual favours
  • High incidence of domestic violence
  • Low income, financially/economically vulnerable population
  • Easily hidden in remote/rural areas (“training houses” for new girls)
  • Drug/Addiction issues

28% of respondents believed that domestic servitude was the most prevalent form of human trafficking in our area.  Respondents identified factors that could account for this: 

  • Less monitoring; more opportunities for it to go unnoticed
  • Higher population of transient workers

11% of respondents thought that forced marriage was the most prevalent form of human trafficking in our area.  Respondents believed that parents are selling foreign women into marriage or relationships for the opportunity to live in Canada.  5 % of respondents believed that forced labour was the most prevalent form of human trafficking due to a poor economy and the transient nature of the population.

1.3 What does the DPS community have to offer human trafficking victims?

Survey respondents identified several agencies and/or services in the DPS that would be of use to human trafficking victims.  Victim Services (52%) and Esprit Place (47%) were mentioned most frequently; followed by Law Enforcement (24%) and Muskoka-Parry Sound Community Mental Health Service (24%).  Sexual Assault Services and Churches, more specifically the Salvation Army to provide temporary food and housing, were identified as possible sources of assistance by 18% of respondents.  Hands the Help the Family Network, Physicians, YMCA Employment Services, and the Newcomer Services/Mobile Multi-cultural Unit were mentioned by 12 % of respondents.  The following programs and services in the DPS community were identified by individual respondents: YMCA, Harvest Share, Legal Aid, Aboriginal Community Support Model, Social Services (PSDSSAB), Housing (PSDSSAB), Women’s Own Resource Centre, support groups and crisis lines.

1.4 What are the risks that can limit a response to human trafficking?

Survey respondents identified a lack of awareness about human trafficking or an inability to identify victims of human trafficking and a lack of funding as the greatest risks that could limit a localized response to human trafficking.

Moderate risks that could limit our response were:  unwillingness or denial of the victim; no safe house; victim’s fear of retaliation or possible harm to self, family, friends, and/or service providers if they seek help; stigma; lack of service coordination; existing caseloads; and finally, the rural/remote nature of the DPS could make it easier to hide victims.

Other possible factors that could limit a response to human trafficking that respondents identified were:  the transient nature of the population; the belief or mindset that human trafficking does not exist in our community; a lack of anonymity in a small community; privacy laws; and confidentiality protocols.

One respondent believed that there were fewer resources in the DPS when compared to larger urban centers in Southern Ontario who have greater awareness of and specialized services available for human trafficking victims.

Other deficiencies that were identified were:  large geographical area and the associated need for transportation to services; large low-income population that already maxes out existing resources; and fewer resources for male victims.

 

 

Part 2:  Symposium Case Studies

Towards a Localized Response to Human Trafficking in the DPS

 

Symposium participants were placed in case study groups.  Case study groups were strategically formed to include representatives from various sectors.  Each group was asked to create a localized response to a fictitious, but plausible human trafficking victim.  Groups were asked to generate a service map that would address the immediate, mid, and long-term needs of their human trafficking victim.  It was hoped that group members would discover both the benefits and limitations of attempting to address victim needs with localized services.  Case studies can be found in Appendix B.

2.1 Kika Hardisty (Possible Sex Trafficking Victim)

The case study group believed that Kika’s immediate service needs were to: establish rapport; ask Kika what she needs (e.g., coffee, food, cigarette, phone call); provide clothing (Victim Services/Esprit Outreach) and methadone (First Nations and Inuit Health Branch), address her cultural needs (e.g., smudge), determine a safety plan; and inform the OPP that this was not a domestic violence call; and provide transportation (VQRP).  Kika’s mid-term needs were identified as: education about trafficking; accommodations (Salvation Army/Ontario Works); addiction (Addiction Outreach) and other counselling (B’sani Mental Health); health assessment (WPSHC); and establishing a daily routine (Indian Friendship Center).  Her long-term needs included:  advocacy with the Police and Crown through Legal Aid and the VWAP program; continued counselling and housing supports; and information sharing with service providers and agencies in Sudbury.

2.2 Imani Singh (Possible Domestic Servitude Victim)

The case study group believed that Imani’s immediate service needs were to: call the police; gather information; provide her with your contact information and shelter (Esprit Place).   Imani’s mid term needs included:  transitional housing (PSDSSAB); food (Harvest Share or Salvation Army); healthcare through Interim Federal Health Program; social and emotional support (MPSCMHS, possible church groups) and connection to Multicultural Services in order to obtain a Temporary Residence Permit; and to explore options via VWAP, Legal Aid, and HRSDC.  Imani’s long-term needs included getting a permanent work visa; assistance obtaining employment, training, and/or education through YMCA Employment Services, Service Canada, Ontario Works, Women’s Own Resource Center, Literacy Works, Canadore College, etc.; getting long term housing (PSDSSAB) and obtaining a sponsor (church): and continued social and emotional support through the Family Health Team; support and/or community groups.

2.3 Xian Zho (Possible Forced Marriage Victim)

The case study group had difficulty determining if this was indeed a case of forced marriage.  Some of the indicators that the group identified were:  little or no social interaction; not allowed to work outside the home; no access to the phone or Internet; and no education or employment outside of the home.  Xian’s current education, life skills, safety, and immigration status are unknown at this point.  The group felt that Xian’s immediate need was a needs assessment in order to determine the true nature of her relationship with her husband.  They felt certain questions needed to be addressed before further action was taken.  They were as follows:  Did you want to marry him?  Do you feel safe?  Do you understand English or would you prefer to have a translator?  Do you feel indebted to your husband?  Do you have access to money?  Do you want to leave?  If indeed Xian wanted out of the situation her next immediate need would be safe shelter (Esprit Place).  Xian’s mid term needs are laying possible charges of confinement (Law Enforcement, Crown, Legal Aid); obtaining a temporary residence permit or other necessary immigration documentation (Multicultural Center, HRSDC); social assistance (VQRP, PSDSSAB) and more permanent housing (PSDSSSAB).  Xian’s long-term needs would largely revolve around education and employment in order to support herself independently (YMCA Employment Services, Canadore College, Contact North).

2.4 The White Van (Possible Sex Trafficking Stable)

The case study group felt that Victim Services should be called immediately to meet with the women at the police detachment.  If possible, the group felt that the women should be separated to prevent the “Bottom Bitch” from influencing the others. Victim services could attempt to establish rapport and provide for immediate needs such as clothing and basic personal hygiene items.  Victim services could attempt to make phone calls to reconnect women with friends or family members if the women so desired.  Victim services may also need to make arrangements for medical attention.  The women’s mid term needs were identified as food and shelter (Salvation Army, VQRP) and their immigration status may also need to be investigated.  The group also suggested that they might need to be connected with the Chrysalis Anti-Trafficking Network, a 24/7 crisis counselling line.  In the long-term these women need to go to Walk With Me Victim Services, an agency dedicated to the rehabilitation of victims of human trafficking.  Walk With Me provides 24/7 Mobile Victim Care throughout Ontario and a safe house equipped with the staff and programs necessary to establish trust and to care for victims in a manner that addresses their trauma.

2.5 Down by the Bay (Possible Forced Labour Victim)

The case study group Jakob’s immediate need was emergency medical attention for his severed fingers.  Jakob may require translation services (Multicultural Services, OPP).  Jakob would also require food and shelter (Salvation Army, VQRP, OPP vouchers).  Jakob’s mid term needs may be transportation to Crisis Center in North Bay; and/or safety planning; and housing (PSDSSAB).  In the long-term Jakob may need Ontario Works; help with obtaining a temporary residence permit; ESL services; and/or facilitation of his return home to Hungary.

 

Part 3:  Project Recommendations: Towards a Localized Response to Human Trafficking in the DPS

 

As evidenced by the case studies, the needs of human trafficking victims are both complex and individual.  Therefore, symposium participants recognized that the service needs of human trafficking victims couldn’t possibly be met by a single agency.

Ideally, an effective localized response must address the need for the strategic coordination of services in order to ensure a continuum of care for human trafficking victims in the District of Parry Sound.

Symposium participants made recommendations to help us work toward the ultimate goal of achieving an effective localized, victim-centered approach to human trafficking.

3.1 Recommendations:

Awareness Raising and Education/Training

1)       Awareness raising activities need to be undertaken to inform schools, parents, community members, and service providers about the nature and scope of human trafficking.

2)       Frontline staff needs to be educated about proper intake and assessment of human trafficking victims.  They need to know the indicators and what to say/not say when dealing with victims of human trafficking.

3)       Develop human trafficking tools, resources, and literature (brochures, forms, referral guides) that are specific to the District of Parry Sound.

Service Coordination to Ensure Continuum of Care

1)       Multi-agency case management and conferencing is necessary for an effective localized, victim-centered response to human trafficking victims.

2)       The need for flexibility in service provision to facilitate a wrap-around support system.

3)       The need to coordinate agency protocols and confidentiality agreements in a manner that facilitates inter-agency communication and service coordination.

4)       The possibility of creating multi-agency response teams was also discussed.

Symposium participants identified possible service gaps that would need to be addressed in order to facilitate the implementation of these recommendations.

3.2 Service Gaps:

  • Accommodation (both short and long-term)
  • Service limitations (services offered, differing boundaries, and transportation)
  • Lack of adequate interview room space
  • Provision of culturally competent and appropriate services
  • Shorter waitlists
  • No safe houses for sexually trafficked victims
  • No detoxification center to address possible addiction issues
  • Lack of or little funding
  • Rehabilitation, medical, and counselling services specific to human trafficking victims

 

Conclusion

The District of Parry Sound has a range of resources and services that could be used to meet the needs of human trafficking victims.  However, it is evident that several challenges and service gaps need to be overcome before we can provide an effective localized, response to victims of human trafficking that meets their short, medium, and long-term needs in a manner that provides a victim-centred continuum of care.

Most project participants felt that, first and foremost, both the general public and service providers themselves need to be educated about the nature and scope of human trafficking and the associated indicators.  They recommended that brochures and other resource materials specific to the District of Parry Sound (e.g., questioning techniques, referral guides) be developed to raise awareness and to facilitate an appropriate response amongst frontline workers.

Due to the complexity of needs presented by human trafficking victims, the next significant challenge that was identified by project participants was service coordination.  This would provide an individualized continuum care that does not further traumatize victims.  Service coordination presents challenges in any area but it is further hampered by the vast and often varying geographical areas covered by existing social service agencies in the District of Parry Sound.

It is believed that the recommendations outlined in this report can be achieved if a concerted effort is made to overcome the challenges and service gaps that have been identified.  Any effort to address human trafficking  in the District of Parry Sound must start with awareness and education and be supported by the ongoing commitment of all stakeholders to coordinate services in a manner that best meets the complex and varied needs of all human trafficking victims.

 

 

APPENDIX A: PRELIMINARY REPORT

 

         District of Parry Sound Victim Crisis Assistance

          and Referral Service/Family Court Support Program

      Le district de Parry Sound / Services aux victimes programme de soutien familial Cour

 

 

A PRELIMINARY REPORT:

UNDERSTANDING COMMUNITY RESPONSES TO HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE

DISTRICT OF PARRY SOUND

 

 

 

PREPARED BY:  Christine Duncan

Human Trafficking Project Coordinator

East & West Parry Sound Victim Services

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction and Background

While both domestic and international trafficking is known to occur within and across Ontario’s borders it is difficult to acquire official estimates due to the hidden nature of the crime.  The purpose of this project is to attempt to ascertain the nature and scope of human trafficking in the District of Parry Sound in order to develop a localized response that best meets the needs of human trafficking victims in our area.

 

With this in mind, this project focuses on a cross-section of law enforcement, local government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and groups that may investigate, prosecute or offer support and/or services to victims of human trafficking or populations that are assumed to be vulnerable to human trafficking.

 

It is envisioned that the findings of the survey combined with the resultant discussions of participants at the one-day symposium will allow us to obtain the knowledge and expertise necessary to begin to develop an effective localized response to human trafficking in the District of Parry Sound.

Methodology

The complexity and diversity of the perceptions of what constitutes “human trafficking” necessitates the inclusion of a broad range of perspectives.  As a result, a mixed-method approach was used and participants from numerous government agencies, NGOs, and law enforcement were asked to complete the questionnaire and attend the symposium.

The questions in the survey were designed to determine the perceived strengths and limitations of the District of Parry Sound relative to its ability to effectively address and support the needs of human trafficking victims.   The questions gathered information about the respondents’ knowledge and awareness of human trafficking, their experience with different types of human trafficking, and their opinions about the existing ability for the community to respond (i.e., services/resources) to human trafficking and how these could be improved upon.

In total, 17 survey responses were received, representing a response rate of 40.5%.  The respondents included a variety of individuals representing frontline service providers, law enforcement, and faith based organizations.  The survey was anonymous so the exact number of respondents from each sector cannot be determined.

Limitations

The response turnaround time was very short and this may have resulted in a lower response rate.  One respondent stated that the questions were confusing.   Some possible stakeholders may have been overlooked.

 

 

 

Part 1:  Knowledge and Awareness of Human Trafficking in the DPS

Human Trafficking Victims

35% of respondents believed that they had never encountered a victim of human trafficking (i.e., an individual exploited for sex, labour, servitude, or forced marriage) in the past 2 years.  29% believed they had encountered at least one human trafficking victim.  24% stated that they had encountered 2 or 3 victims. 12% of respondents stated that they had dealt with 5 or more suspected victims of human trafficking.

Human Trafficking Perpetrators

The majority of respondents stated that they had never encountered a perpetrator of human trafficking (71%).  24 % stated that they only had contact with one or two suspected perpetrators.  1 % of respondents believed they had encountered at least 3 perpetrators.  No respondents reported encountering 4 or more perpetrators in the last 2 years.

Most Prevalent Forms of Human Trafficking

1.  Sex Trafficking:  56% of respondents believed that sex trafficking is the most prevalent form of human trafficking in our area.  Respondents identified several factors that could account for this:

  • High school students doing favours for money/drugs/items
  • Parents selling kids for sexual favours
  • High incidence of domestic violence
  • Low income, financially/economically vulnerable population
  • Easily hidden in remote/rural areas (“training houses” for new girls)
  • Drug/Addiction issues

 

2.  Domestic Servitude:  28% of respondents believed that domestic servitude was the most prevalent form of human trafficking in our area.  Respondents identified factors that could account for this: 

  • Less monitoring; more opportunities for it to go unnoticed
  • Higher population of transient workers

3.  Forced Marriage:  11% of respondents thought that forced marriage was the most prevalent form of human trafficking in our area.  Respondents believed that parents are selling foreign women into marriage or relationships for the opportunity to live in Canada.

4. Forced Labour:  5 % of respondents believed that forced labour was the most prevalent due to a poor economy and the transient nature of the population.

 

Part 2:  Strengths and Weaknesses of the District of Parry Sound (DPS)

  1. What does the DPS community have to offer human trafficking victims?

 

Respondents identified several agencies and/or services in the DPS that would be of use to human trafficking victims.  Victim Services (52%) and Esprit (47%) were mentioned most frequently.   Followed by Law Enforcement (24%) and Muskoka-Parry Sound Community Mental Health Service (24%). 

Sexual Assault Services and Churches (Salvation Army) were identified as possible sources of assistance by 18% of respondents.  Hands, Doctors, YMCA Employment Services, and Newcomer Services/Mobile Multi-cultural Unit were mentioned by 12 % of respondents.

The following programs and services in the DPS community were identified by individual respondents: YMCA, Harvest Share, Legal Aid, Social Services (PSDSSAB), Housing (PSDSSAB), support groups, crisis lines, safe haven, and the one day symposium.  One respondent believed that the DPS community had nothing to offer human trafficking victims and another stated that he/she didn’t know.

  1. What does the DPS community do well in comparison to other communities?

 

24% of respondents stated that service providers are aware of what other agencies in the area do and how they can help.  

Other strengths that were commonly identified were:  victim crisis response and referral services; service coordination amongst community partners; ability of service providers refer to other appropriate service providers; and the existence of support groups.

Some of the strengths mentioned by individual respondents were: DPS service providers are open to community planning; existing Aboriginal community support models; Esprit; Law Enforcement; and crisis lines.  18% of respondents stated that they didn’t know what the DPS community did well.

  1. What unique and helpful resources are available to facilitate a response to human trafficking locally?

 

12 % of respondents identified Victim Services as a unique and helpful resource to identify human trafficking victims and to provide for their immediate needs such as clothing and personal care items.

Other helpful resources mentioned by respondents were:  Esprit (shelter and outreach); Legal Aid; Family Court Program (forced marriage); Churches; The Salvation Army (temporary food and housing); Aboriginal Community Support Model; availability of spaces to accommodate drop-ins and conferences; and lastly, the human trafficking project (survey and symposium) to raise awareness about human trafficking in the DPS and to attempt to develop a community service map for victims.

  1. What are the risks that can limit a response to human trafficking?

 

Respondents identified a lack of awareness about human trafficking and/or an inability to identify victims of human trafficking as the greatest risks that could limit our response to human trafficking (41%). 

Moderate risks that could limit our response were:  unwillingness or denial of the victim; no safe house; victim’s fear of retaliation or possible harm to self, family, friends, and/or service providers if they seek help; stigma; lack of service coordination; existing caseloads; and finally, the rural/remote nature of the DPS could make it easier to hide victims.

Other possible factors that could limit a response to human trafficking that respondents identified were:  the transient nature of the population; the belief or mindset that human trafficking does not exist in our community; a lack of anonymity in a small community; privacy laws; and confidentiality protocols.  One respondent stated that he/she did not know the risks that could limit a response to human trafficking in the DPS.

  1. Are there fewer resources in the DPS than in other communities?  If yes, in what way?

 

One respondent did not feel that there are fewer resources in the DPS.

24% of respondents felt that fewer resources were available in the DPS community because the resources that do exist are spread out and this means that victims must have transportation to access available resources. 

One respondent believed that there were fewer resources in the DPS when compared to large urban centers in Southern Ontario who have greater awareness of and specialized services for human trafficking victims.

Other deficiencies that were identified were:  isolation and low population; large low income population that already maxes out existing resources; no safe house; and fewer resources for male victims.

41% of respondents indicated that they did not know whether or not the DPS had fewer resources to address human trafficking.

6.  When looking at a response to human trafficking in the DPS, what are the fixed limitations we will need to deal with (e.g., working within existing resources)?

A lack of funding (35%) and a lack of awareness (35%) about human trafficking were both identified by respondents as the greatest limitations to a response to human trafficking in the DPS. 

These limitations were closely followed by: geography/transportation issues; physical space for treatment and counselling; limited resources and services specific to HT victims; and the need for the strategic coordination of services to ensure a continuum of care.

Other limitations that were identified by respondents include:  lack of housing/shelter; existing caseloads; privacy laws/confidentiality protocols/legal limitations; stigma and identity issues.  One respondent did not know what the fixed limitations were.

 

 

Part 3:  Opportunities and Threats in the District of Parry Sound (DPS)

  1. What opportunities exist for enhancing or supporting the existing strengths that you identified in Part 2?

Increasing community/public awareness of human trafficking was identified as the most important opportunity to enhance or support the strength of our response to human trafficking (35%).

Increasing the level of awareness was closely followed by increasing the amount of communication that occurs between agencies (24%) as a means to enhance or support existing strengths.

Other suggestions made by respondents included:  monthly interagency meetings; regular anonymous data collection; training for all possible first responders; education in schools; a willingness for agencies to work within their limitations; and support groups.  One respondent stated that he/she did not know how our existing strengths could be enhanced or supported.

  1. What existing programs/resources/ ideas could the DPS community take advantage of?

 

17% of respondents believed that we should take advantage of existing public information sessions, community forums, and municipal council meetings to increase public awareness about human trafficking.

Respondents also mentioned the need for both public and high school awareness campaigns with supporting educational materials.  Esprit and the coordination of services between agencies were also seen as important existing resources that should be taken advantage of.

Other existing programs/resources/ideas that respondents felt the DPS community could take advantage of that were:  support groups, professional development workshops; a district-wide study; International Women’s Day; PSDSSAB: Salvation Army (food, housing, clothing, and street level work); Victim Services (training and referral to appropriate services); Sexual Assault Services; Women’s Own Resource Centre; and Great Beginnings.

Two respondents stated that they didn’t know of any existing programs/resources/ideas that the DPS community could take advantage of in order to respond to human trafficking.

  1. What political, economic or technological trends could harm/benefit the community’s response to human trafficking?

 

Harm: 

Political:  The lack of information combined with the mindset that human trafficking cannot happen here represent definite barriers to the community’s response to human trafficking.  Other issues identified by respondents were: privacy laws; prostitution laws; identity theft and the tendency to focus on the crime rather than the victim.

Economic:  Respondents believed that the greatest economic trend that could harm the community’s response to human trafficking is a lack of funding.  With limited resources there is a concern that the DPS community may not be able to meet the complex needs of trafficking victims.  Respondents also pointed out that numerous residents in the DPS require public assistance or have low incomes that may make individuals in the area more vulnerable to human trafficking.

Technological:  Access to the Internet and social media may facilitate luring.

Benefit:

Political:  The use of the media to increase awareness about human trafficking.

Economic:  Respondents also felt that service providers with local expertise could be utilized to train personnel in other community agencies or organizations.

Technological:  Access to the Internet could be utilized to educate individuals and to share information about human trafficking in general and in the DPS.

Additional Comments:

  • Some of the questions were confusing
  • My knowledge of services available for human trafficking victims is limited
  • Sex trade for addiction purposes is difficult enough to address on its own
  • Not enough time/resources to address this issue given the addiction problems in the DPS
  • This is not an issue that has come to our attention

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX B: SYMPOSIUM CASE STUDIES

 

Case Study – Kika Hardisty  (Possible Sex Trafficking Victim)

Kika Hardisty is being held in an interrogation room at the West Parry Sound Police Detachment.  It is February and she is wearing a t-shirt, yoga pants, a light coat and running shoes.  Kika is in her early twenties.  She is thin and appears unwell.  When you enter the room, Kika is sitting with her arms crossed, eyes cast downward and she is either rocking back and forth or shifting in her seat.  The police officer states that Kika and her 51-year-old boyfriend were apprehended during a traffic stop.  Kika’s boyfriend was driving erratically and weaving all over the road.  They were on their way back to Sudbury from Toronto on Highway 400 N.  Apparently, Kika and her boyfriend were in the midst of a heated dispute during which Kika had tried to grab the wheel and this caused the car to go out of control.  Police have categorized this as a domestic violence call.

Kika’s main concern is about finding a ride home to Sudbury where she lives with her boyfriend.  Police advise you that Kika is also in withdrawal and she is in need of a methadone treatment. When you try to reach Kika’s family members (mother and sister), the phone numbers she provides keep changing and she seems uncertain about how to reach them.  When you ask if she could use the contacts feature on her cell phone, Kika is unable to find her cell phone anywhere.  Kika does not seem to be too concerned about its loss.   Kika states she is hungry.  In the course of conversation Kika does tell you she is Cree and that she grew up in a small northern Ontario town called Kapuskasing.  Kika explains that she left when she was seventeen because her mom’s newest boyfriend did not like her and treated her poorly.

Case Study – Imani Singh  (Possible Domestic Servitude Victim)

You are seated in McDonald’s when what you assume to be a tourist exits her Mercedes and proceeds to walk in with her two children and a nanny in tow.  The woman is a stunning blonde and her two-year-old daughter and infant son are adorable and impeccably dressed.  The nanny is in jeans and a t-shirt; she has the two-year-old girl by the hand and is carrying the infant in the other arm while the mother places an order.  They proceed to sit at a table close by.  You notice that the mother has ordered food for herself and her children, but not the nanny.  The nanny gets whatever is left over after the others have eaten.  The mother takes her infant son out of the high chair and sniffs his bottom.  She then hands him over to the nanny who gets up and heads to the washroom.  You are finished eating and take your two toddlers to the same washroom.  The nanny is in the midst of changing a diaper.  She introduces herself as Imani.  Imani explains that she rarely gets into Parry Sound because she spends most of the summer on an island out on Georgian Bay.  Imani asks for your help.

 


Case Study – Xian Zho (Possible Forced Marriage Victim)

Xian was the only remaining daughter of Chen Zho of Hunan Province.  She felt considerable pressure to get married, as she was almost thirty-years-old and a disgrace to the family.  Xian was encouraged to post her photo and a brief biography on a mail-order bride website that was dedicated to helping Westerners find a wife.  Paul and Xian began corresponding via email and eventually one year later Paul made a month long visit to China.  Paul paid two thousand dollars for Xian and they were married in China.  Paul returned home with Xian and together they live on his family farm near Magnetawan.  Xian cannot drive.  Paul chauffeurs Xian everywhere, but she rarely goes out unless it is to purchase a few groceries with Paul.  Xian is not allowed to work outside the home or to invite anyone to the house.  She only socializes with Paul’s family members and a couple of Paul’s buddies when they come over.  They do not have Internet service or a landline.  Xian can only phone home to China once a month using Paul’s cell phone.   Xian is beginning to feel like she is being held captive.  Most of the neighbors are happy for Paul, as they thought he would die an old bachelor.

Case Study – The White Van (Possible Sex Trafficking Stable)

Police have a 38-year-old male and six females ranging in age from 15 to 26 in custody at the Almaguin Highlands Police Detachment.  It is January and the van was driving north on Highway 11 when it was pulled over for speeding.  The driver was doing 133 km/h in a 100 km/h zone.  The officer noticed that there were six other passengers in the back of the vehicle.  They were all scantily clad women who were sitting on the floor of the commercial van.  The officer called for back up; the van was towed and placed in impound and all occupants were taken to the detachment.

The man explains that the women were there with him willingly and he was simply providing them with transportation from Toronto to Timmins.  He states that these women are strippers who had found out about a new, classier club that was opening up in Timmins.  The women are being held in another room together and they are not talking.  There is a small, but noticeable shamrock tattoo on the inner wrist of all but one of the women. 

Case Study – Down by the Bay (Possible Forced Labour Victim)

Jakob, a 28-year-old Hungarian male is dropped off at the West Parry Sound Health Centre.  He comes in alone.  Jakob can speak very little English and he does not have an Ontario Health Card.  He does not carry any form of identification.  Jakob can speak enough English for frontline staff to gather that he is the victim of a sawing accident that occurred while he was working on an island out on Georgian Bay.  His hand is wrapped in a blood-soaked tea towel and when it is removed the staff can see that Jakob has lost the tips of two of his fingers and a third finger is partially severed.

 

 

APPENDIX C:

RESOURCES FOR HUMAN TRAFFICKING VICTIMS

Please note that this list is by no means exhaustive.

 

FEDERAL RESOURCES

A number of federal departments are involved in anti-human trafficking efforts and in overseeing the implementation of different measures outlined in the Canada’s National Action Plan (http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/ntnl-ctn-pln-cmbt/ntnl-ctn-pln-cmbt-eng.pdf).  These federal departments are part of the National Human Trafficking Taskforce led by Public Safety Canada.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is Canada’s national police service and an agency of the Ministry of Public Safety Canada. In addition to carrying out human trafficking related investigations, generally in international cases, and assisting provincial and local law enforcement agencies in their investigations, the RCMP has established the Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre (HTNCC) headquartered in Ottawa. The role of the HTNCC is to partner with international, federal, provincial and municipal agencies and NGOs in order to develop policies, tools, mechanisms and initiatives to fight human trafficking in Canada and abroad. The priorities of the HTNCC are to: For more information, visit: www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/ht-tp/index-eng.htm.

Canadian Crime Stoppers

Blue Blindfold Campaign against human trafficking.  For more information, visit: www.canadiancrimestoppers.org/?content/human_trafficking.html

Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)

The core of CBSA’s mandate is to provide integrated border services. In this capacity, CBSA participates in anti-human trafficking efforts by:  identifying instances of human trafficking; Preventing suspected traffickers from transporting potential victims into Canada; ensuring the safety and security of potential victims by referring them to appropriate government services and NGOs; and supporting the investigation and prosecution of traffickers.  In addition, CBSA’s Multiple Borders Strategy employs Migration Integrity Officers who work with airline security and local authorities in other countries to prevent human trafficking and smuggling by identifying potential cases before the persons involved reach Canada. For more information, visit: www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca.

Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)

Citizenship and Immigration Canada assists in the protection of trafficked persons by helping regularize their immigration status through temporary residence permits or Temporary Residence Permits (TRPs). TRPs may be issued to victims or suspected victims of human trafficking with no legal immigration status or with temporary immigration status, such as visitors, persons with a work or study permit or a pending refugee claim. According to CIC regulations, victims do not necessarily have to collaborate with law enforcement in investigations against their traffickers in order to receive a TRP.  The TRP provides legal immigration status in Canada to potential victims and is issued for a period of 180 days. The initial TRP is fee-exempt and allows the person to also apply for a fee-exempt work permit.  In certain cases the TRP may be reissued at the end of the initial180-day period.  The TRP is meant to offer victims a period of reflection in which they can decide whether they want to stay in Canada or return to their native country. It allows them to start recovering from physical or mental trauma, while also removing them from the influence of their traffickers, who often use lack of immigration status in Canada as a very effective means of control. Through the associated work permit, TRPs also allow victims to legally work and earn an income. For detailed information on how to apply for a TRP, visit: www.cic.gc.ca/english/information/applications/trp.asp.

Persons who have been issued a temporary residence permit have access to free medical services through the Interim Federal Health Program for as long as their TRP remains valid.  Under this program, trafficked persons have access to extended health-care coverage that includes hospital, laboratory, diagnostic and ambulance services, as well as access to services of doctors, nurses and other health care professionals. The supplemental health-care benefits also give access to prescription medication, limited dental and vision care, prosthetic devices, home and long-term care, as well as counseling services. For information on how to apply for Federal Interim Health Coverage, visit: www.cic.gc.ca/english/information/applications/guides/5568ETOC.asp.

Persons who do not have a valid health card may also access health care services through Community Health Centres across the province. To locate the closest Community Health Centre, visit: http://www.ontario.ca/locations/health/index.php?lang=en&utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_term=community%20health%20centres&utm_campaign=HCO%20|%20Community%20Health%20Centres

Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC)

Human Resources and Skills Development Canada is responsible for overseeing the Temporary Foreign Workers Program, along with Citizenship and Immigration.  The program allows Canadian employers to recruit foreign workers to fill immediate labour shortages. The role of HRSDC is to assess applications from employers that wish to hire temporary foreign workers and to issue labour market opinions.

There are four main components to the Temporary Foreign Workers Program:

  • Agricultural Workers Program
  • Live-in Caregiver Program
  • Lower-skilled Occupations Program
  • Higher-skilled Occupations Program

To find out more about each of these programs, visit: www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/jobs/foreign_workers/index.shtml.

HRSDC has been mandated under the Canada’s National Action Plan to take measures that ensure the rights of temporary foreign workers who come to Canada are protected. Temporary foreign workers are one of the groups that have been found to be most vulnerable to labour exploitation and trafficking.

Some of the ways in which HRSDC participates in combating human trafficking are:

  • Improving protection of temporary foreign workers by developing policies to conduct on-site employer visits;
  • Improving employer monitoring in the Live-in Caregiver Program;
  • Developing improvements to the process available to exploited temporary foreign workers to change employers;
  • Raising awareness of human trafficking with labour inspectors and officials;
  • Forming partnerships and fostering information sharing on issues related to human trafficking for forced labour; and
  • Disseminating awareness materials, such as the Temporary Foreign Workers – Your Rights Are Protected pamphlet prepared by CIC, which is available in multiple languages. (www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/tfw-rights.asp)

Chrysalis Network

Another useful resource available to trafficked persons across Canada is the Chrysalis Network. This is a volunteer-run not-for-profit organization that operates a national human trafficking hotline. By calling this hotline at 1-866-528-7109, women, men and youth across Canada who have been trafficked or exploited for the purposes of commercial sex or forced labour, can access free trauma counseling. The Chrysalis Network also provides referrals to local services and safety planning. The service is also available to sex workers who do not self-identify as trafficked or exploited. In addition, Project Lifeline offers a safe buddy system for sex workers operating in isolation. Services are available in multiple languages. For more information, visit: www.chrysalisnetwork.org.  A number of provincial and municipal programs and services also play a part in anti-human trafficking efforts through prevention, protective services for victims, prosecution of offenders and partnerships with NGOs and other agencies.

PROVINCIAL RESOURCES

Ontario Victim Services

Ontario Victim Services, operating as part of the Ministry of the Attorney General of Ontario, facilitates access to a number of programs and services for victims of crime and their families, including victims of human trafficking. Some of these services are described briefly in the following sections. For more information, visit: www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/ovss/

Victim Services

The Victim Services program provides immediate short-term crisis intervention services to victims of crime 24 hours a day, seven days a week. They are offered through 47 community agencies across the province. With a victim’s consent, police will arrange for victim service staff and/or specially trained volunteers to provide onsite, short-term assistance to victims, and make referrals to community agencies for long-term assistance. Victims may also access the services directly without being referred by police.

To find the Victim Service program closest to you, visit the online Victim Services Directory at www.services.findhelp.ca/ovss/ or call the Victim Support Line toll-free at 1-888-579-2888 or 705-746-0508 in the Parry Sound District.

VQRP Program

The Victim Quick Response Program or VQRP, which is available through more than 50 service delivery organization across Ontario, also offers services that trafficked persons may be eligible to receive. These include:

  • Emergency expenses to secure premises, cellular phones for safety, emergency
  • accommodation, meals and personal items, emergency transportation costs and
  • dependent care costs, emergency vision care, crime scene cleanup; and
  • Short-term immediate crisis counseling.

For more information, visit: www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/ovss/vqrp_program_info_booklet.pdf.

Victim Witness Assistance Program

The Victim Witness Assistance Program or V/WAP is offered by the Ministry of the Attorney General in all 54 court jurisdictions across the province. Trafficked persons involved in criminal court cases against their traffickers can receive valuable supports and services through the V/WAP from the moment the police lay charges until the court case is concluded.

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Walk with Me Canada Victim Services www.walk-with-me.org

Established by a survivor of human trafficking, Walk With Me was created with a commitment to ensuring that survivors have a place in providing response care to victims of human trafficking and to train law enforcement on how to identify human trafficked victims. Since its inception in 2009, Walk With Me has trained over 6000 officers and various agencies across Canada and Ontario. Walk With Me has served over 280 victims of Trafficking and has been assisting over 34 agencies in Ontario 24/7. The agency has been recognized both nationally and internationally, and has published 3 books on human trafficking, but is primarily known for their 24/7 Mobile Victim Care services and an Emergency Safe House specialized for survivors of human trafficking. Services include:

  • 24/7 Mobile Victim Care across Ontario;
  • 24-72 hours Emergency Safe housing,
  • Transitional home options;
  • Travel arrangements / Transportation to another city or province;
  • Emergency financial support;
  • Gift cards for food, clothing and immediate needs;
  • Dental care, medical care including tattoo removal (brand removal);
  • Phones and phone cards;
  • Household items;
  • Immigration/ legal assistance; and
  • Translation.

Contact:  24/7 Mobile Victim Care crisis line for Police and Social Agencies ONLY: 647- 838-6673 (please do not call this number for any general inquires)

LANGUAGE SERVICES

Created under the French Language Services Act, the Office of Francophone Affairs works together with the ministries to ensure that the Act is applied and the public is able to access French language services in the 25 designated areas. For more information, visit: www.ofa.gov.on.ca

Free Language Interpretation Services (LIS)

Victims of human trafficking who cannot communicate in English or in French are eligible for free interpretation services through the LIS program. To request an interpreter, please call the LIS agency serving your region. A list of LIS agencies across the province is available at www.languageinterpreters.on.ca.

The Action Coalition on Human Trafficking (ACT Alberta) brings together law enforcement, government ministries, non-governmental organizations and volunteers to identify and respond to human trafficking in Alberta.http://www.actalberta.org/index.php

Alliance against Modern Slavery (AAMS) is a Canadian organization that works to create partnerships amongst public, private, governmental agencies in order to combat modern day slavery.  A full listing of their local and global anti-trafficking partners can be found on their website. http://allianceagainstmodernslavery.org/organizations_against_modern_slavery

Canadian Council for Refugees website has current information about human trafficking in Canada and a database of useful text and video resources. http://ccrweb.ca/en/trafficking

MUNICIPAL RESOURCES (DISTRICT OF PARRY SOUND)

Please refer to the East & West Parry Sound Victim Services On-Call Handbook.  The binders may not be removed.  Should you wish to have a copy please email us vcars@vianet.ca to request an electronic copy of this municipal service provider referral guide.

WRITTEN MATERIALS

Helping Trafficked Persons – A Resource Handbook for Service Providers, 2014, MCIS Language Services.  Copies of this Handbook may be downloaded from www.helpingtraffickedpersons.org

Project Innocence:  A Teacher’s Guide to Domestic Sex Trafficking, 2012.  Prepared by Walk With Me Canada Victim Services

Mindset of a Human Trafficking Victim, 2012 (written for service providers)Written by Timea Nagy, survivor of Human Trafficking and founder of Walk With Me Canada Victim Services

Memoirs of a Sex Slave Survivor, 2010.  A biography written by Timea Nagy, survivor of Human Trafficking and founder of Walk With Me Canada Victim Services

ONLINE

Online Training Initiative to Address Human Trafficking, 2014.  This training has been developed by MCIS Language Services with funding from the Province of Ontario, through the Ministry of the Attorney General’s Ontario Victim Services.  http://helpingtraffickedpersons.org/

VIDEOS

Enslaved and Exploited: The Story of Sex Trafficking in Canada. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kothPyoyvDE

Back to Innocence:  The Jubilee Project https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBxC0KQm7LM

The Whistleblower (2010):  A drama based on the experiences of Kathryn Bolkovac, a Nebraska cop who served as a peacekeeper in post-war Bosnia and outed the UN for covering up a sex trafficking ring.